By Dennis Caplan, University at Albany (State University of New York)



CHAPTER 6:  Flexible Budgeting



Exercises and Problems:


6-1: The Silver Company planned to make 10,000 units of product in July. Budgeted costs were $110,000 in variable costs and $220,000 in fixed costs. The company actually made 11,000 units. Actual costs incurred were $110,000 in variable costs and $210,000 in fixed costs. Calculate the flexible budget variance for July.  Is it favorable or unfavorable?



6-2: The Davenport 4-H Club plans to spend $5,000 to send 20 of its members to the State Fair in Des Moines. $2,000 of the $5,000 are fixed costs. Twenty-five members actually attend the fair, at a cost of $6,000. Calculate the flexible budget variance. Is it favorable or unfavorable?



6-3: A piano teacher has budgeted fixed costs of $1,250 per month, and budgeted variable costs of $1,200 per month, where variable costs are a linear function of the number of one-hour piano lessons. The piano teacher expected to give 120 one-hour piano lessons in April, but actually gave 150 one-hour piano lessons in April. Actual fixed costs were $1,000 and actual variable costs were $1,500. What is the flexible budget variance for April? Is it favorable or unfavorable? 



6-4: The Amber Company planned to make 1,000 units of product in June. The static budget showed a per-unit cost of $10, which consisted of $3 for variable costs and $7 for allocated fixed overhead. The company actually made 1,100 units. The actual per-unit cost was $10, which consisted of $3 for variable costs and $7 for allocated fixed overhead. Calculate the total flexible budget variance for June. Is it favorable or unfavorable?



6-5: The static budget (i.e., the original budget) of the Tam-Taha Corporation showed a production cost of $10 per unit at a production level of 100 units. This $10 included $2 of fixed costs. Actual production was 200 units, and actual costs were $9 per unit, which included $1 of fixed costs. Calculate the flexible budget variance. Is it favorable or unfavorable? 



6-6: MDC company plans to make 7,000 units, and at this level of production, the cost per unit would be $50. This $50 consists of $30 in variable costs and $20 in allocated fixed overhead. What would the flexible budget show for total costs, if the company makes 6,000 units?



6-7: Kinney-Borst anticipates production and sales of 100 units, total variable costs of $6,000, and total fixed costs of $3,000. Actual production and sales were 200 units. Calculate a flexible budget.



6-8: At the beginning of the year, a company budgets variable costs of $2,000 and fixed costs of $1,500 at a production level of 100 units. The company actually produces 110 units, and incurs variable costs of $2,000 and fixed costs of $1,800. What is the flexible budget variance? Is it favorable or unfavorable? 



6-9: CWC company planned to make 2,100 units in 2005, and budgeted $900,000 in fixed costs and $130 per unit for variable costs. CWC actually made 2,000 units in 2005, and incurred total costs of $1,200,000. What is the flexible budget variance for 2005? Is it favorable or unfavorable?



6-10: Iron Butterfly, Inc., manufactures a single model of a deluxe portable camping stove. Information for August production is as follows:








Variable Costs, per unit





Fixed Costs for August


Production for August



40,000 units



38,000 units


Required: What is the flexible budget variance for August?



6-11: The Pretenders, Inc., produces exercise equipment for dogs. The following information pertains to variable manufacturing overhead, which is allocated using machine hours.





Units produced

Machine hours

Variable manufacturing overhead








Required: Calculate the flexible budget variance.


6-12: The Bee Gees cultivate and sell honey. They provide you the following data with respect to the upcoming year. 


Budgeted variable costs (per jar):

Cost of the jar & label             $1.50

Labor                                         2.40

First aid supplies                         .25


Budgeted fixed costs:

Salaries:                                   $50,000

Lease expense:                                    10,000

Other fixed costs                      15,000 


Relevant range over which these cost relationships are expected to hold: zero to 50,000 jars. Average sales price per jar is $7.00.


Required: Prepare three flexible budgets, showing operating income, for the following levels of sales (assume sales equals production):


            A)        20,000 jars


            B)        40,000 jars


            C)        50,000 jars



6-13: The Vanilla Fudge Company runs a chain of ice cream stands in the Pacific Northwest. Following is data for location #37 for June. This location sells only one product: a large size double-scoop ice cream cone, in one flavor: vanilla fudge.


Cost per gallon of premium ice cream                                                $5.00

Scoops per gallon                                                                    20

Cost for the waffle cone                                                         .25

Paper products (a variable cost)                                             $500 for the month

Fixed costs for the month (salaries, rent, insurance, etc.)            $1.00 per cone                                    

Cones sold in June:                                                                 5,000

Sales price per cone:                                                                $2.35


The company expects the same cost relationships to hold for July.


Required: Prepare two pro forma budgets for July, deriving projected operating income; one based on sales of 7,500 cones, and one based on sales of 10,000 cones.


6-14: Assume the following information for the Chestnut Ridge Dog Kennel for 2004:



Number of dogs cared for


Fixed Costs

Variable Costs:



Total Costs



















Variable costs are linear in the number of dogs cared for.



A)        Calculate a flexible budget for 2004.


B)        Calculate the flexible budget variance for each of the three expense line-items for 2004, and indicate whether the variance is favorable or unfavorable.


C)        Assume that the actual results for 2004 are used as the basis for building the 2005 static budget, except that the kennel believes it will care for 50 dogs in 2005. Develop a static budget for 2005.


6-15: The Convent at New Skeet runs an orphanage. Sister Sarah manages the orphanage and Sister Rachel is responsible for the accounting records. Sister Rachel prepared the following summary of costs for 2001, including a column showing the original budget for 2001.



The New Skeet Orphanage - Cost Analysis


2001 Budget


2001 Actual


Number of children (all ages)


Fixed costs:


  Janitorial Services

  Repairs and Maintenance

  Salaries for non-Convent employees

    Total fixed costs


Variable costs:



  Laundry & Linen Service

  Educational Costs


    Total variable costs


Total costs





$ 25,000



















$ 27,250
















Sister Sarah is very concerned that the orphanage uses its funds efficiently.  She is pleased that total costs were below budget for the year, but she wonders if this is partly due to the fact that the orphanage housed fewer children than expected for the year.



A)        Prepare a flexible budget for 2001, based (i.e., “flexed”) on the number of children actually housed in 2001.


B)        Should Sister Sarah be satisfied with the orphanage’s cost management in 2001?  Briefly explain.





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Management Accounting Concepts and Techniques; copyright 2006; most recent update: November 2010


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